Nanoparticles

Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in size with a surrounding interfacial layer. The interfacial layer is an integral part of nanoscale matter, fundamentally affecting all of its properties. The interfacial layer typically consists of ions, inorganic and organic molecules. Organic molecules coating inorganic nanoparticles are known as stabilizers, capping and surface ligands, or passivating agents. In nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit with respect to its transport and properties. Particles are further classified according to diameter.

Classification:

1.Ultrafine particles are the same as nanoparticles and between 1 and 100 nm in size.

2.Fine particles are sized between 100 and 2,500 nm.

3.Coarse particles cover a range between 2,500 and 10,000 nm.

Scientific research on nanoparticles is intense as they have many potential applications in medicine, physics, optics, and electronics.

INTRODUCTION:

Conventional processing techniques have contributed significantly to mineral/material production; and efforts to further improve current technologies are continually made for incremental advances.

On the other hand, applying new processing technologies can produce a quantum leap in the types, quality, and economics of the new products and processes. For example, nanotechnology derived concepts may be used in producing value added products from existing minerals or waste streams. Currently, nanomaterials have found applications in fields spanning from aerospace, electronics to biomedical and advanced materials.

Various commercial applications of nano particles derived from natural materials:

AluminaNano alumina powders are used in many applications including ceramics, coatings, polishing slurries, catalysis
MaterialUses as nano material
CarbonCarbon black is used in fillers, inks, pigments, building products
CarbonCarbon nanotubes started to have a wide application in electronic devices, drug delivery
ClaysOrganically modified nanoclays are used in nanocomposites, utilized in many industries
Iron oxideIron oxide nano powders are of wide applications in cosmetics, paints, pigments, ferrofluids
SilicaSilica and mesoporous silica are used in catalyst support, “soft” silica-paints, foundry facings, polishing slurries, filtration media
Titanium
Dioxide
For its unique properties, TiO2 is of wide usage in photocatalysis self-cleaning surfaces, paints, paper
Zinc oxideIs currently used in cosmetics, coatings, catalyst, textiles
ZirconiaCatalysis, fuel cells, bio-implants

A nanometer (nm) is one-billionth of a meter, hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair. There is a multidisciplinary convergence of science dedicated to the study of a world in such small scale. The US National Nanotechnology Initiative (Roco 2011) has described four generations of nanotechnology development. The first era is a design of passive nanostructures and materials to perform just one task like nanostructured metals, aerosol. The second phase introduced active nanostructures for multitasking, for example, actuators, drug delivery devices and sensors. The third generation featured nanosystems with thousands of interacting components. In this era, integrated nanosystems, hierarchical systems within systems, have been developed.

Accordingly, a comprehensive definition for Nanotechnology is:

Nanotechnology is art and science of manipulating atoms and molecules to create systems, materials and devices at nanoscale as well as their application in various fields.

Nanotechnology can be referred to as a general-purpose technology, as it has significant impacts on almost all industries and all areas of society. Nanotechnology is expected to offer better built, longer-lasting, cleaner, safer and smarter products for the home, for communications, for medicine, for transportation, for agriculture and for industry in general. Chemistry and materials science and in some cases biology are integrated to create new properties of materials in nanoscale. However, engineering principles must be exploited to gain market opportunities.

Generations of nanotechnology development (Roco 2011):
Application of Nanotechnology in Different Fields:
 
Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology in Biotechnology
Nanotechnology in Petroleum Industries
Nanotechnology in Material Science
Nanotechnology in Environmental Science
Nanotechnology in the Energy Sector
Nanotechnology in Other Specific Fields

Synthesis Technologies and Challenges:

top-down methods:

Classification of the common top-down methods for nanostructural material synthesis or production.

Bottom-up methods:

The bottom-up approach is a self-assembly of molecular species, with controllable chemical reactions. This approach involves the creation and utilization of functional materials, devices and systems with novel properties and functions achieved in the forms of control of matter, atom by atom, molecule by molecule or at the macromolecular level. This fact causes the synthesis to be carried out in a fluid phase, while the top-down methods were done in the solid phase. Compared to top-down approach, this technique is more efficient and flexible to synthesis vast variety of nanomaterials with well-controlled shape, size, morphology, structure, surface properties conveniently.

BOTTOM – UP method:
  • Physical Vapor Deposition
  • Chemical Vapor Dpodition
  • Plasma Processes
  • Sol – gel Processing
  • Soft – Lithography
  • Self – Assembly

comparison between top-down methods and Bottom-up methods

Nanotechnology future:

Nanotechnology is a broad term that covers many areas of science, research and technology. In its most basic form, it can be described as working with things that are small. Things so tiny that they can’t be seen with standard microscopes. The same stuff that has always been there, but we just couldn’t see it. The building blocks of nature, atoms and molecules. Nano-technology involves understanding matter at the “nano” scale.

Today nanotechnology is still in a formative phase–not unlike the condition of computer science in the 1960s or biotechnology in the 1980s. Yet it is maturing rapidly. Between 1997 and 2005, investment in nanotech research and development by governments around the world soared from $432 million to about $4.1 billion, and corresponding industry investment exceeded that of governments by 2005. By 2015, products incorporating nanotech will contribute approximately $1 trillion to the global economy. About two million workers will be employed in nanotech industries, and three times that many will have supporting jobs.

Descriptions of nanotech typically characterize it purely in terms of the minute size of the physical features with which it is concerned–assemblies between the size of an atom and about 100 molecular diameters. That depiction makes it sound as though nanotech is merely looking to use infinitely smaller parts than conventional engineering. But at this scale, rearranging the atoms and molecules leads to new properties. One sees a transition between the fixed behavior of individual atoms and molecules and the adjustable behavior of collectives. Thus, nanotechnology might better be viewed as the application of quantum theory and other nano-specific phenomena to fundamentally control the properties and behavior of matter.

Over the next couple of decades, nanotech will evolve through four overlapping stages of industrial prototyping and early commercialization. The first one, which began after 2000, involves the development of passive nanostructures: materials with steady structures and functions, often used as parts of a product. These can be as modest as the particles of zinc oxide in sunscreens, but they can also be reinforcing fibers in new composites or carbon nanotube wires in ultraminiaturized electroni.

The following are the basic branches of nanotechnology knowledge:

  • Nano coatings
  • Nano materials
  • Nano object
  • Nano particle
  • Nanotubes
  • Nanocoating
  • Nanocomposites
  • Nano structure
  • Molecular engineering.
  • Molecular motors (nano machines)
  • Nano electronics
  • Nano wires
  • Nano sensors
  • Nano transistors
  • Soft nano
  • Nanotechnology lipid
  • Nano mechanic
  • Nano-fluid
  • Nano Lithography
Geographical distribution of nanotechnology publications in 2016:
                        Indicators at a glance
ISI Indexed Nano-articles (article)

Iran and Nanotechnology

Iran has made considerable progress in the field of nanotechnology and has been successful in presenting a model for development and advancement, noting that the country has now climbed the slope of the mountain in nanotechnology and is standing on the peak. The United States invests annually over $2 billion and Japan over $1.5 billion in nanotechnology, while the capital of the INIC is merely $20 million. This budget cannot even compare with the budget for nanotechnology development in other countries. over 160 Nano companies are currently active in Iran and there are 320 Iranian Nano products available in the market.

Rank Country Nano-articles Share (%)
1 China 47,455 34.51
2 USA 22,337 16.25
3 India 11,066 8.05
4 South Korea 8,386 6.1
5 Germany 7,963 5.79
6 Iran 7,583 5.52
7 Japan 6,952 5.06
8 France 5,313 3.86
9 UK 5,038 3.66
10 Spain 4,178 3.04
11 Russia 4,124 3.0
12 Italy 3,901 2.84
13 Australia 3,406 2.48
14 Canada 3,018 2.19
15 Taiwan 2,831 2.06
16 Saudi Arabia 2,489 1.81
17 Brazil 2,471 1.8
18 Poland 2,300 1.67
19 Singapore 2,170 1.58
20 Turkey 2,056 1.5

List of products produced in Iran by the nanotechnology industry:
Product number Product number
Health & Beauty 49 Paints and Resins 15
Equipment production 44 Energy, oil and related industries 14
Household goods 39 Automotive and Transportation 14
Identification and Analysis Equipment 28 Nano Fiber Products and Equipment 12
Textile and Clothing 27 Water and Environment 8
Building 23 Services 6
Pharmaceuticals and Medicine 19 Polymers and Composites 6
Nanomaterials 18 Cool plasma products and equipment 4

Application of nanotechnology in mineral processing:

Natural resources derived from the Earth’s lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere are the key building blocks of a sustainable human society. In 2006, the United States National Research Council (NRC) estimated the added value of processed nonfuel minerals to the U.S. economy to exceed $2.1 trillion.

Nanotechnology could also lead to significant reductions in the consumption of critical minerals through the efficient use of mineral resources and the development of nontoxic and cost-effective substitutes to rare-earth elements for the applications listed in applications in Table below.

End uses of rare earth elements End Use Percentage
Automotive catalytic converters 32
Metallurgical additives and alloys 21
Glass polishing and ceramics 14
Phosphors (television, monitors, radar, lighting) 10
Petroleum refining catalysts 89
Permanent magnets 2
Other 13

Source: Committee on Critical Mineral Impacts of the U.S. Economy, Committee on Earth Resources, National Research Council 2008.

During the last 10 years, nanotechnology has emerged as a suitable platform technology for addressing global sustainability challenges, especially in terms of energy, water, food, habitat, transportation, mineral resources, green manufacturing, clean environment, climate change, and biodiversity. Key advances include the development of (1) more efficient renewable energy generation and storage technologies, (2) improved water treatment and desalination membranes, (3) improved food safety (detection and tracking) systems, (4) more efficient separation systems for recovering valuable metals, (5) miniaturized sensors that can detect and monitor pollutants more efficiently, and more effective environmental remediation technologies, (6) more efficient CO2 capture media, and (7) microchip fabrication processes that use less materials, energy, and water.

In the next 10 years, the power of nanotechnology should be used to develop and commercialize the next generation of sustainable products, processes, and technologies. Priority areas will include (1) water desalination and reuse, (2) CO2 capture and transformation to useful products and (3) green manufacturing. Current reverse osmosis (RO) desalination membranes have limited water recovery (e.g., 40–70%) and require high pressure (e.g., 10–70 bar) to operate and generate significant amounts of liquid wastes that need to be disposed. Thus, a key priority in water desalination and reuse is to develop the next generation of low-pressure membranes (e.g., 0.5-5 bar) with high water recovery (> 95%) and capability to:

  1. Reject dissolved anions and cations from saline water (e.g., brackish water and seawater)
  2. Reversibly and selectively bind and release dissolved anions and cations in saline water
  3. Extract clean water, nutrients, and other valuable compounds from domestic and industrial wastewater

Current CO2 capture media only perform a single function, i.e., separate CO2 from flue gases. Thus, a key priority in climate change mitigation and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is to develop:

  1. Size- and shape-selective media with nanocages that can capture CO2 and convert it to useable products
  2. Membrane reactors with embedded nanocages that can capture CO2 and convert it to useable products


– Nano Bubbles:

Based on such characteristics of tiny (nano and micro) bubbles as charge, lower buoyancy and longer existence in water, nano and micro-bubbles have potential applications in a number of fields, and a great deal of research on nano-bubbles has been conducted in recent years Micro and nano-bubble technologies have attracted great attention due to their wide application range in science and industry, such as mining industries, water treatment processes, biomedical engineering, food processing and nanomaterial industries In mining industries, nano-bubbles can be used in the flotation process to effectively increase the process performance. Nano-bubbles generated by hydrodynamic cavitation have been found to increase the contact angle of solids and as a result the attachment force, bridge fine particles to form aggregates, minimize slime coating, remove oxidation layers on particle surfaces and consequently reduce reagents consumption.


– Nanoparticle Flotation Collectors:

Flotation is a critical operation in the isolation of valuable minerals from natural ore.

Before flotation, chemical collectors are routinely added to ground ore slurries.

Collectors selectively bind to mineral-rich particles, increasing their hydrophobicity thus promoting selective flotation. Conventional collectors are small surfactants with a short hydrocarbon tail (2-6 carbons) and a head group, such as xanthate. In this work, much larger hydrophobic polystyrene nanoparticles are evaluated as potential flotation collectors. Experiments involving both clean model mineral suspensions and complex ultramafic nickel ores confirm that conventional water-soluble molecular collectors could be partially or completely replaced by colloidal hydrophobic nanoparticle flotation collectors.

The ability of nanoparticles to induce flotation has been demonstrated by floating hydrophilic, negatively charged glass beads with cationic polystyrene nanoparticle collectors. Mechanisms and key parameters such as nanoparticle hydrophobicity and nanoparticle adsorption density have been identified. Electrostatic attraction promotes the spontaneous deposition of the nanoparticles on the glass surfaces raising the effective contact angle to facilitate the adhesion of beads to air bubbles. The pull-off force required to detach a glass sphere from the air/water interface of a bubble into the water was measured by micromechanics. Coating with nanoparticles allows the beads to attach remarkably firmly on the air bubble. As little as 10% coverage of the bead surfaces with the most effective nanoparticles could promote high flotation efficiencies, whereas conventional molecular collector requires 25% or higher coverage for a good recovery.

Contact angle measurements of modified glass surfaces with a series of nanoparticles that covered a range of surface energies were used to correlate the nanoparticle surface properties with their ability to promote flotation of glass beads. Factors influencing nanoparticle deposition on glass, such as nanoparticle dosage, nanoparticle size, conditioning time have been investigated with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM).

Deposition kinetics has been analyzed according to Langmuir kinetics model.

Surface functionalized nanoparticles enhance the ability of nanoparticle collectors to selectively deposit onto surfaces of the desired mineral particles in the presence of gangue materials. Poly (styrene-co-vinylimidazole) based nanoparticle collectors have been developed to selectively deposit onto nickel mineral (pentlandite) in the presence of Mg/Si slime. Flotation tests of ultramafic nickel ores with these nanoparticle collectors have shown improvements in both pentlandite recovery and selectivity. However, costeffective applications of nanoparticle flotation collectors have yet to be identified.


-Nanotechnology and environment:

Nanotechnological products, processes and applications are expected to contribute significantly to environmental and climate protection by saving raw materials, energy and water as well as by reducing greenhouse gases and hazardous wastes. Using nanomaterials therefore promises certain environmental benefits and sustainability effects, which are outlined in this dossier. Note, however, that nanotechnology currently plays a rather subordinate role in environmental protection, whether it be in research or in practical applications. Environmental engineering companies themselves attach only limited importance to nanotechnology in their respective fields.

There are also some nanostructures with photocatalytic activity, like Zinc Oxide, applied for the treatment of environmental pollution (Sung et al. 2010). The nanomembranes, nanoadsorbents and nanostructures with photocatalytic activity can be used to purify indoor air volumes or to separate out contaminates in automobile tailpipes and factory smokestacks and prevent these contaminants entering the atmosphere.

One of the outstanding roles of nanotechnology is improving energy and resource efficiency in the chemical industry. The explosion and developments in nanotechnology have exhibited significant impacts on the understanding, practice and applications of catalysis. Nanocatalysts can be used to increase the yield of chemical reactions and reduce the amount of environmentally damaging side products. Catalysis provides controls over the rates at which chemical bonds are Typical structures of nanomaterials with potential applications for adsorption: a dendrimer, b fullerene, c zeolite, d carbon nanotube 88 2 From Nanotechnology to Nanoengineering broken and formed. Therefore, it is the key to energy conversion and environmental protection in chemical manufacturing and transportation. In the chemical industry, nanocatalysts with improved properties boost energy and resource efficiency. High hopes are placed in nanotechnologically optimized products and processes for energy production and storage. Novel lighting materials with nanoscale layers of plastic and organic pigments enhance conversion rate from energy to light.

Typical structures of nanomaterials with potential

Applications for adsorption:

A: dendrimer

B: fullerene

C: zeolite

D: carbon nanotube

Application of Nano additives in drilling

The oilfield provides ample opportunities for these materials to be applied.

An investigation into using nanoparticles as a drilling fluid additive to enhance wellbore stability has been successful. The nanomaterial works by virtually shutting off water movement between the formation and wellbore. In shale formations with nanodarcy (nd) permeability, such as the Marcellus, the usual drilling fluid method of relying on a filter cake to reduce fluid loss (or leak off) cannot be used because a filtercake may not form due to the extrememly low permeability shale (Figure 1). The solution for this problem is to engineer a nanoparticle which will be added to the drilling fluid to plug the pores of the shale and shut off water loss.

Drilling fluids serve many objectives in a drilling process, including the elimination of cuttings, lubricating and cooling the drill bits, supporting the stability of the hole and preventing the inflow-outflow of fluids between borehole and the formation. However, with increasing production from non-conventional reservoirs, the stability and effectiveness of traditional drilling fluids under high temperature and high pressure (HTHP) environment have become big concerns. Both water and oil based drilling fluids are likely to experience a number of deteriorations such as gelation, degradation of weighting materials and breakdown of polymeric additives under HTHP conditions. Recently, nanotechnology has shown a lot of promise in the oil and gas sectors, including nanoparticle-based drilling fluids. This paper aims to explore and assess the influence of various nanoparticles on the performance of drilling fluids to make the drilling operation smooth, cost effective and efficient. In order to achieve this aim, the article will begin by explaining the important role that drilling fluid plays during the drilling process with a historical review of drilling fluid industry development. Then, definitions, uses and types of drilling fluid will be demonstrated as well as, the additives that are appended in order to enhance drilling fluid performance.

Nanotechnology & Pasargad Neshan Pars:

The company is proud to be a nanotechnology company active in the field of mineral processing, and in its work has produced a patent for the production of nanoparticles and copper compounds by bio-hydrometallurgy with the registration number 92873 dated 19 july 2017. We are proud that this is the beginning of our way of using new technologies and is just one of dozens of elements that our colleagues today are exploring for the purpose of their processing from mineral resources.

Pick Estandard Cuo

Picks Produce Cuo by Pasargad Neshan Pars Co.

Comparison between Cuo and Cuo 01-074-1021 code

Analysis Cuo

Cuo MAP

The size of the nanoparticles produced

We try to use it, using modern methods and nanotechnology, use all of Iran’s resources and minerals and treat them best, and make the best use of available resources.